Comparative analysis of particulate matter, bioaerosols and heavy metals in ambient and indoor environment of Lahore zoo and Safari zoo Lahore
Muhammad Naeem Khan1 , Zulfiqar Ali1, Kiran Saleem1, Zainab Irfan1, Zona Zaidi1,
Syed Muhammad Faheem Ahmad2, Aliza Batool3, Zaheer Ahmad Nasir4, Ian Colbeck5
1Environmental Health and Wildlife, Department of Zoology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, 54590, Pakistan.
2University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.
3Department of Zoology, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Pakistan.
4Cranfield University College Road, Cranfield MK43 0AL, Bedfordshire, UK
5School of Biological Sciences, University of Essex, Colchester, CO4 3SQ, UK
Particulate matter was measured in indoors in three animal enclosures of Lahore Zoo and Safari Zoo, Lahore. Real time data for PM2.5, NO2, VOC, relative humidity and temperature were measured. Bioaerosols, as bacteria and fungal spores were identified along with chemical analysis for heavy metals, Pb, Cd, Cr, Zn and Cu. A considerable variation was observed in 24 hour concentrations of PM2.5 owing to variations in relative humidity and temperature, with a decrease during the night hours. PM2.5 was comparatively higher in indoors as compared to outdoors, with the highest value of 1997 µg/m3 in the pheasant enclosure of Lahore Zoo and lowest levels (59 µg/m3) in the lion enclosure of Safari Zoo. Volatile organic compounds were also highest in the pheasant enclosure due to heavy vehicular traffic close by. The concentration of NO2 was highest in the hog deer enclosure of Lahore Zoo as compared to the lowest in pheasant enclosure (0.08 and 0.047 ppm respectively). Bioaerosol analysis revealed the presence of Bacillus sp, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus epidermidis with highest concentrations in terms of CFU/m3 at Lahore Zoo as compared to Safari Zoo, Lahore. Fungal spores included Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus, A. flavus Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum and Alternaria alternata. Heavy metal analysis revealed higher values for Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and Zn at Lahore Zoo compared to Safari Zoo Lahore.