Development of Inhalable Drug Formulations for Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

Ville Vartiainen, Janne Raula, Katri Koli, Marjukka Myllärniemi

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic progressive lung disease, in which the functional gas exchanging tissue of the lungs is replaced with connective tissue, and is characterized by histopathological pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia.[1] The mortality ranges from 78.6 to 188.6 per 1000 patient/years depending on the disease severity.[2] Currently, the IPF patients have very few treatment options. In EU and US only two drugs, pirfenidone and nintedanib, have been approved for clinical use.[3–5] The available drugs are also associated with adverse effects which significantly decrease the quality of life of the patients. In the clinical trials on pirfenidone, the CAPACITY studies, 98% of patients on pirfenidone reported at least one adverse effect, of which most common were gastrointestinal symptoms, skin related adverse effects and dizziness.[6] In the clinical trials on nintedanib, the INPULISIS studies, over 90% of the patients on nintedanib reported diarrhea as treatment-emergent adverse effect.[7]

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