The pediatric population has a preference for noninvasive methods of aerosol drug delivery. Nasal cannula and facemask are two means of noninvasive ventilatory support. This study investigated the effect of these on aerosol delivery to the pediatric patient.
The feasibility of aerosol delivery in combination with open and closed facemask options with supplemental oxygen and also along with nasal cannula in a model of a 4 month old was investigated. Tracheal dose at each supplemental oxygen gas flow rate under test (2 and 6 LPM) was recorded in triplicate for each interface type.
Results: The closed face mask facilitated the highest tracheal dose (19.47 ± 2.60% at 2 LPM) & (14.40 ± 0.41% at 6 LPM) compared with both the open face mask (10.12 ± 0.86% at 2 LPM) & (6.64 ± 0.21% at 6 LPM) and nasal cannula (6.44 ± 0.20% at 2 LPM) & (1.44 ± 0.08% at 6 LPM).
The feasibility of relatively high levels of aerosol drug delivery in a model of a 4 month old paediatric patient was successfully demonstrated. It is evident that closed aerosol delivery systems deliver larger fractions of the aerosol past the trachea than the open systems of open facemask and nasal cannula. It is likely that the closed system facilitates this improved performance on the basis that there is less aerosol lost through leaks as the supplemental oxygen pressurises the system, and during the exhalation phase of the breath.