Studies of ice nucleation entities in sea spray aerosol

P. J. DeMott, C. S. McCluskey, T. C. J. Hill, F. Malfatti, G. P. Schill, O. Laskina, J. Trueblood, M. V. Santander, C. M. Beall, R. H. Mason, A. K. Bertram, V. H. Grassian, K. A. Prather

We report on recent laboratory and field studies aimed at developing an understanding of ice nucleation particle (INP) production within sea spray aerosol (SSA), toward improved parameterization of these particles within global climate models. We find INPs present in bulk seawater and in SSAs, with enhancements in both phases noted in all laboratory studies following the death phase of phytoplankton blooms. Direct and indirect evidence points toward assorted macromolecules as major sources of these ice nucleation entities (INEs.

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