Partitioning of ice nucleating particles: Which modes matter?

Luke B. Hande, Corinna Hoose

Ice particles in clouds have a large impact on cloud lifetime, precipitation amount, and cloud radiative properties through the indirect aerosol effect. Thus, correctly modelling ice formation processes is important for simulations preformed on all spatial and temporal scales.  Ice forms on aerosol particles through several different mechanisms, namely deposition nucleation, immersion freezing, and contact freezing.  However there is conflicting evidence as to which mode dominates, and the relative importance of the three heterogeneous ice nucleation mechanisms remains an open question.

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